If you have multiple sclerosis (MS), you’ve probably heard conflicting claims about a new diet or supplement that could help your symptoms. More studies are now being done to examine how nutrition can impact MS patients. However, many results have been conflicting or inconclusive.

Some diet plans can jeopardize your health and omit nutrients. Eating a well-balanced, low-fat diet full of fiber and colorful fruits and vegetables is likely the best place to start. Talk with your doctor to find out the facts before starting any diet plan.

Keep reading to find out about emerging research regarding MS and diet.

According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, many neurologists recommend a low-fat, high-fiber diet to maintain optimal health. This includes avoiding saturated fats and trans fats, and eating healthy mono- and polyunsaturated fats such as those found in olive oil, nuts, and avocadoes. Unsaturated fats are important building blocks of myelin and nervous system tissue.

Keep in mind that moderation is the key. Less than 30 percent of daily calories should come from any kind of fat.

In the 1980s, Dr. Roy Swank developed a very strict, low-fat diet for MS patients. In the Swank diet, fats are restricted. Fish oils are allowed. According to the Swank MS Foundation, overall calories from fat should be less than 30 percent of daily intake, or a maximum of 65 grams of total fat a day.

In a 1990 article in The Lancet, Swank’s research group reported that people with MS who followed his diet saw less deterioration and lower mortality rates. However, some researchers aren’t convinced there’s enough current data to back up his claims. Studies are ongoing to determine if the Swank diet or other extremely low-fat diets have significant benefits for people with MS.

Several studies have shown that increasing intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may help patients with MS. These unsaturated fats have anti-inflammatory effects in animal studies.

Linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, in combination with other nutrients including omega-3 fatty acids, decreased relapse rates and slowed disease progression in a clinical trial. However, other studies show no effect.

Overall, researchers are not yet sure if it’s worthwhile to add supplementation with PUFAs to an MS treatment regimen. Studies are inconclusive, and research is ongoing.

Research published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics indicates that sufficient vitamin D levels may prevent the development of autoimmune diseases like MS. Research published in the Journal of Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders suggests that vitamin D can also influence relapse rate and the number of lesions seen on MRIs. However, there still needs to be more studies for conclusive evidence.

Many neurologists recommend supplementation if blood levels are low. Recommended daily intake is 600 IU. However, patients with low vitamin D take as much as 50,000 IU for a few months. Too much vitamin D can be toxic, so speak with your doctor before taking any supplements.

The effects of a gluten-free diet on MS are conflicting. Research from Israel suggests that some people with MS also have antibodies that are normally associated with celiac disease, an allergy to gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat and some other grains. The presence of these antibodies suggests a link between immune intolerance to gluten and autoimmune diseases like MS.

However, other research findings and some neurologists suggest that there is no link between gluten antibodies and MS. More studies need to be done to draw any solid conclusions.

Free radicals do some of the damage that occurs during the formation of MS lesions. Free radicals cause oxidative stress, and can be neutralized by antioxidants like vitamins A, C, E, beta carotene, lutein, lycopene, and selenium. A recent study revealed that people with MS had significantly lower antioxidant levels and higher oxidative stress in their saliva.

Chronic inflammation during an attack can cause deficiencies in antioxidant levels in the body. Supplementation may restore levels of these key nutrients. However, high doses may have other effects on MS patients that have not been studied.

Researchers are looking into the role that nutrition can play in treating MS, but many questions remain. Vitamin D shows promise in slowing the progression of MS. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may be valuable in protecting nerve health. Antioxidants and other nutrients like probiotics may play valuable roles in a treatment regimen. How the gut microbiome, or intestinal bacteria population, affects neurodegenerative diseases is a new frontier in research. Early research shows that improving gut bacteria can reduce the risk of gut permeability, may improve symptoms of MS, and may slow the progression of the disease.

For now, a diet low in fat, high in fiber, and rich in plant foods — fruits, vegetables, and whole grains — seems to be the most evidence-based diet for the best long-term health of an MS patient. However, there’s not enough evidence yet to show clear benefits of their use.